AI

How Can AI Improve Disaster Response and Risk Management?

How Can AI Improve Disaster Response and Risk Management? Illustration by Namrata Vansadia

Illustration by Namrata Vansadia

Introduction

AI and Disaster Response and Risk Management should be every countries top priority, disasters can take many different forms. From natural disasters like hurricanes and wildfires to pandemics and terrorist attacks, we must be ready. The impact of a disaster can be devastating, both for the people affected and for the economy.

In disaster risk reduction (DRR), artificial intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning (ML), plays an important role, from forecasting of extreme events to developing risk mitigation strategies and providing real time situational awareness and decision support.

In order to minimize the damage caused by disasters, it is important to have a disaster risk management strategy in place. Many experts believe that artificial intelligence (AI) can play a role in improving disaster response and risk management.

This blog post will explore how AI can help during a disaster. We will also look at how experts can use AI for disaster risk reduction.

Also Read: AI and Power Grids.

Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning for Disaster Response and Recovery

First, let’s look at how AI and machine learning (ML) can help when disaster strikes. Artificial intelligence uses algorithms to learn from data. Machine learning is a type of AI that allows computer systems to improve from experience without being programmed to do so. 

In the context of disaster response, first responders can use AI and ML for a variety of tasks, such as:

Automated damage assessment

One of the first steps in any disaster response is damage assessment. This involves sending out teams of assessors to evaluate the extent of the damage. Automated damage assessment using AI and ML can help to speed up this process.

For example, we can use computer vision algorithms to analyze images and videos to identify damaged buildings. This information can then be used to create maps that show the affected areas. In addition, firms can use AI to process large amounts of data from different sources (e.g., social media, satellite images). This provides a complete picture of the damage caused by a disaster.

Google has one such AI, which uses datasets from the biggest recent earthquakes, including: 

  • Haiti (2010)
  • Mexico city (2017)
  • Indonesia (2018)

By using AI for damage assessment, responders can better understand the gravity of the disaster situation.

Source: YouTube

Predictive analytics for evacuation

Another way that AI can help during a disaster is by using predictive analytics to predict when and where an evacuation might be necessary. Let’s take an erupting volcano as an example.

We can use predictive analytics to analyze data from seismic sensors, weather data, and satellite images. Experts can then use this information to create a model that predicts how an eruption might unfold. Knowing if it will be violent enough to warrant an evacuation and when it might happen allows authorities to prepare for the disaster efficiently.

In addition, predictive analytics can be used to analyze data from social media. This data can help to monitor rumors about an impending disaster. Using AI-based methods to monitor social media, responders can get a head start on evacuations and other response measures.

Routing of emergency resources

During a disaster, time is of the essence. We can speed up many of the tasks that need to be carried out during a disaster response. This can help to save lives and minimize damage. Transfer learning can create models that can analyze satellite images and identify areas of damage. Relevant authorities can then use this information to deploy emergency services more efficiently.

Intelligent search algorithms are used to find the best route for evacuations. By using AI to route emergency resources, we can ensure that they are deployed more efficiently and effectively. In addition, we can use AI-based solutions to predict the path of a natural disaster.

Source: YouTube

A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can also be used for routing purposes. For example, the open-source software, QGIS, can be used to create maps that show the locations of evacuation centers and first responders.

Source: YouTube

Prevention

Disaster risk management is not just about response and recovery. It is also about prevention. Artificial intelligence can identify risk factors that may lead to a disaster. For example, it can use machine learning to analyze historical data to identify patterns that may indicate a forthcoming catastrophe.

The collection methods for this data have become increasingly sophisticated. For example, the use of drones and sensors can help to gather data more efficiently. This data can then be processed using AI to provide insights that can help prevent heavy damage from natural disasters.

In that case, cities can put disaster preparedness programs like early warning systems in place to minimize the impact of the disaster.

Real-Time Data and the Internet of Things

Another way AI can help improve disaster response is by providing real-time data. In short, the Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the network of physical devices, vehicles, and home appliances that are connected to the internet. These devices are equipped with sensors that collect data about their surroundings. This data is then processed and analyzed using AI to provide insights in real-time.

In many cases, first responders have to rely on information that is hours or even days old. This can make it difficult to make informed decisions about where to deploy resources.

The Internet of Things can collect real-time data that we can use to improve disaster response. For example, government leaders can place sensors in high-risk areas to monitor conditions and provide early warning of approaching danger.

You can also find networks for flood monitoring systems that share real-time data to help predict and prepare for floods. For an effective response, it is essential to have up-to-date information about the disaster.

Engaging the Whole Community

The best way to improve disaster response is to engage the whole community. That includes government agencies, businesses, nonprofits, and individuals. Each of these groups has something to contribute to the disaster response effort. AI-based methods can more easily engage the whole community in the disaster response effort.

For example, businesses can use AI to monitor social media for early warnings of approaching disasters. Emergency management systems can use AI to identify people who need assistance and accordingly deploy resources from the city infrastructure.

The coordinating city departments during a disaster can also use AI to predict traffic patterns and plan the best route for evacuation. In disasters like Hurricane Sandy, people were stranded for days because of the gridlock. By using AI to predict traffic patterns, we can avoid this type of gridlock in the future.

Alternatively, if evacuation is not possible, AI can be used to identify safe areas for shelter.

Staying a Step Ahead of Disasters

AI-based disaster response and risk management methods can help us stay a step ahead of disasters. By using AI to predict the path of a disaster, we can evacuate people in its path and deploy resources ahead of time.

If we know that a hurricane will hit a certain area, we can use deep learning techniques and reinforcement learning to predict the storm’s most likely path. Behavior learning works best in this case as it can learn from past data to predict future behavior.

Depending on the collection methods, biases in training data can distort results. Since machine learning is mainly used for analyzing large data sets, sometimes these biases in training aren’t caught in time. In the case of rare disasters like hurricanes, the training data set is usually not large enough to accurately predict the path of the storm.

Finally, AI can improve humanitarian mapping efforts using machine learning to map the affected area automatically. This is especially useful in the case of large-scale disasters like earthquakes, where a lot of data needs to be processed quickly. First responders can use these humanitarian mapping efforts to plan the best way to deploy resources.

Also Read: Books: Artificial Intelligence and Smart Cities.

Public/Private Partnerships Are Vital for Adequate Disaster Response

It’s also worth noting that public/private partnerships are vital for adequate disaster response. The government can’t do it all, and private companies often have the resources and expertise to fill in the gaps.

Many tech companies have begun offering training materials and services to help government agencies improve their disaster response efforts. There are ethical considerations to be taken into account when private companies are involved in disaster response, but overall these partnerships can be a force for good.

A wide range of development efforts is underway to create AI emergency management systems. We want to understand these tragedies’ effects on the city departments before a disaster even happens. Behavior learning is a prime example of how AI can be used in this way.

We can use AI to build models of city infrastructure and simulate various disasters to see how the city would respond. These simulations can help us identify weaknesses in the city infrastructure and make changes before a disaster strikes.

Finally, public partnerships like these can help create a more prepared community for future disasters. By working together, we can ensure that the right resources are in place to respond effectively to any disaster.

Conclusion: AI and Disaster Response and Risk Management

Disaster risk management is a complex and multi-faceted problem. AI and machine learning can help improve disaster response in several ways. From automated damage assessment to predictive analytics for evacuation, AI can make a significant difference when it comes to minimizing the impact of a disaster.

What do you think about the role of AI in disaster response and risk management? Let us know in the comments below.

Sanksshep Mahendra

Sanksshep Mahendra is a technology executive, he holds a Master's degree from Pratt Institute and executive education from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in AI, Robotics, and Automation.

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